Type 2 Hypersensitivity Reactions

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Type 2 Hypersensitivity Reactions | Immediate allergic reactions

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Type II hypersensitivity, also known as antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity, is caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies directed against antigens on cells or extracellular materials. The reaction leads to cytotoxic processes involving antibodies and the complement system. Interference with the normal cellular operation generating either stimulatory or inhibitory dysfunction is another mechanism that occurs. The inciting antigencan be intrinsic or part of the host cell. Extrinsic antigens such as blood products or medications can provoke a similar reaction. For diagnosis, laboratory tests and invasive procedures are utilized, depending on the system affected. Management of resulting disease ranges from supportive care to antibiotics, immunosuppressive medications, and surgery.

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