Malignant Melanoma - How To detect Melanoma early; ABCDE rule. Types of Melanoma



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Malignant Melanoma is the most serious and deadliest form of skin cancer. Because, It has tendency to spread in distant areas of the body, which is called metastases.
Prognosis of melanoma highly dependent on stage of the disease.
In the early stages, melanoma can be treated successfully with surgery alone
For example: The five-year survival rate for patients with stage 0 melanoma is 97%.
compared with about 10% for those with stage IV disease.
Therefore, early and correct diagnosis is key for ensuring patients have the best possible prognosis.
To diagnose melanoma as soon as possible, it is important to know, primary characteristics of skin lesions, which potentially can be melanoma. The characteristics of melanoma are commonly known by the acronym ABCDE and include the following:
A – Asymmetry. Skin lesion is not symmetrical. You will be unable to divide it 2 symmetrical parts.
B - Irregular border. Nevus has no prominent border. but irregular, ragged, notched, or blurred edges.
C - Color variations, especially red, white, and blue tones in a brown or black lesion.
D - Diameter greater than 6 mm.
E - Elevated surface.

Melanomas typically occur on the skin. In women, they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men, they most commonly occur on the back.
Rarely melanoma can develop in the mouth, intestines, or eye.
Only 25 % of melanomas develop from mole. Majority cases aren’t arise from nevus.
The cause of A melanoma is malignant transformation of melanocytes, that occurs after DNA mutation, most often secondary to excess sun exposure, especially in people with lighter skin.
Other risk Factors of Melanoma Include:
Genetics: Positive family history.
Personal characteristics - Blue eyes, fair and or red hair, pale complexion; skin reaction to sunlight (easily sunburned); freckling; benign and or dysplastic melanocytic nevi (the number shows a stronger correlation than size).
High ultraviolet rays radiation exposure. Sun exposure over a lifetime.
Recent evidence has shown that the risk of melanoma is higher in people who use sunscreen.
Because sunscreen blocks ultraviolet radiation type B, but doesn’t block Type A. UVA.
Those people are exposed to the sun more than other average people.
Atypical mole can transform to melanoma. Over ten years, 10.7% risk.
The incidence of malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing worldwide, its spreading rate is faster than any other cancer, except lung cancer in women.
Melanoma is more common in Whites than in Blacks and Asians.
The average age at diagnosis is 57 years.
But, Melanoma is also common among young and middle-aged people.
Certain lesions are considered to be precursor lesions of melanoma. These include the following nevi:
Common acquired nevus.
Dysplastic nevus.
Congenital nevus.
Cellular blue nevus.
The 4 major types of melanoma, classified according to growth pattern, are as follows:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma constitutes approximately 70% of melanomas, usually flat but may become irregular and elevated in later stages; the lesions average 2 cm in diameter, with variegated colors, as well as peripheral notches, indentations, or both.
2. Nodular melanoma accounts for approximately 15% to 30% of melanoma diagnoses; the tumors typically are blue-black but may lack pigment in some circumstances.
3. Lentigo maligna melanoma represents 4% to 10% of melanomas; the borders; they begin as small, freckle-like lesions
4. Acral lentiginous melanoma constitutes 2% to 8% of melanomas in Whites and 35% to 60% of them in dark-skinned people;

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By Setijanti H.B., Rusmawati E., Fitria R., Erlina T., Adriany R., Murtiningsih - Chapter: Setijanti H.B., Rusmawati E., Fitria R., Erlina T., Adriany R., Murtiningsih (2019) Development the Technique for the Preparation and Characterization of Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE)Book: Kojima H., Seidle T., Spielmann H. Alternatives to Animal Testing, Springer, Singapore DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-2447-5_3. ISBN: 978-981-13-2446-8.License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=82095837
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By Omar Bari, Philip R. Cohen - (2017). "Tumoral Melanosis Associated with Pembrolizumab-Treated Metastatic Melanoma". Cureus. DOI:10.7759/cureus.1026. ISSN 2168-8184., CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=87002765
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