Fever Causes and Fever Types. What does fever say about the disease? High temperature



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Normal body temperature is around 98.6 Fahrenheit or 37 degree Celsius. it can vary during the day.
Early morning it can be lower, but for the evening higher. This variation is around 0.5 degree Celsius.
If Armpit temperature of 99 Fahrenheit 37.2 Celsius or higher in most cases it can be considered abnormal. Having high temperature is called febrile or pyrexia.
Hyperpyrexia is the term applied to the febrile state when the temperature exceeds 41.1°Celsius.
There are five patterns of fever: intermittent, remittent, continuous or sustained, hectic, and relapsing. 1. With intermittent fever, the temperature is elevated but falls to normal (37.2°C or below) each day,
2. while in a remittent fever the temperature falls each day but not to normal.
3. Hectic fever is these abovementioned fevers if their amplitude changes during the day more then 1.4 degree Celsius or more.
4. Sustained fever is a pattern in which there is little change (0.3°C or less) in the elevated temperature during a 24-hour period.
5. In relapsing fever, a variant of the intermittent pattern, fever spikes are separated by days or weeks of intervening normal temperature.
Hectic fevers, because of wide swings in temperature, are often associated with chills and sweats. This pattern is thought to be very suggestive of an abscess or pyogenic infection such as pyelonephritis and ascending cholangitis, but may also be seen with tuberculosis, hypernephromas, lymphomas, and drug reactions.
Continuous or sustained fever is usually not associated with true chills or rigors. It is characteristic of typhoid fever or typhus, although commonly seen in bacterial endocarditis, tuberculosis, fungal disease, and bacterial pneumonia. Noninfectious etiologies include neoplasms, connective tissue disease, and drug fever.
Relapsing fevers may be seen in rat-bite fever, malaria, cholangitis, infections with Borrelia recurrentis, Hodgkin's disease (Pel-Ebstein fever), and other neoplasms.
Most fevers follow the usual diurnal pattern. Disseminated tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and polyarteritis nodosa are important exceptions in which reversal of the usual diurnal pattern ("typhus inversus" pattern) can be observed. A reversed pattern is also seen with old age and with salicylate ingestion.

Drastic and irreparable changes in organ structure and function can occur when body temperature falls below 32.2°Celsius or 90°Farhenheit or rises above 41.1 Celsius or 106°Farenheit.
Most infectious causes of fever are naturally self-limited usually are circumscribed illnesses of less than 7 to 10 days that do not require hospitalization.
If Fever persisting for more than 2 weeks, especially when it is accompanied by malaise, anorexia, and weight loss, requires thorough consideration and investigation.
The special category of fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to febrile which lasts for 2 or 3 weeks despite a reasonably complete evaluation by physical examination, chest x-rays, routine blood tests, and cultures.
At this case infectious agents are about one-third of fever of unknown origin. Such diseases are:
Miliary tuberculosis, bacterial endocarditis, biliary tract disease including liver abscess and viral hepatitis, pyelonephritis, abdominal abscess, osteomyelitis, and brucellosis are the major infections encountered.
In adults, neoplasms are the cause of Fever of unknown origin are about 20% of cases. The fever is due to the neoplasm itself, and not to complicating infection. Lymphomas (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's) and neoplasms (hepatoma, atrial myxoma, and hypernephroma) are frequent causes. Among the Hodgkin's lymphoma cases, those of the lymphocyte-depletion type in elderly patients are most likely to present as FUO.
Collagen vascular diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, "juvenile" rheumatoid arthritis (Still's disease), polyarteritis, temporal arteritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica account for about 15% of FUO cases. Other causes of prolonged fever include granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis, idiopathic hepatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
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