Difference between IBS (Irritable bowel Syndrome) and IBD (Inflammatory bowel disease)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), referred to previously as spastic or nervous colon, and spastic bowel, is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.[1] These symptoms occur over a long time, often years.[2] It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common (mixed/alternating), or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M/IBS-A, or IBS-U, respectively).[1] IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work.[9] Disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS.[1][10][note 1]

The causes of IBS are not clear.[2] Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity.[2] Onset may be triggered by an intestinal infection[11] or stressful life event.[12]

Diagnosis is based on symptoms in the absence of worrisome features and once other potential conditions have been ruled out.[3] Worrisome features include onset at greater than 50 years of age, weight loss, blood in the stool, or a family history of inflammatory bowel disease.[3] Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.[3]

There is no known cure for IBS.[5] Treatment is carried out to improve symptoms.[5] This may include dietary changes, medication, probiotics, and counseling.[5] Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).[3][13][14] The medication loperamide may be used to help with diarrhea while laxatives may be used to help with constipation.[3] Antidepressants may improve overall symptoms and reduce pain.[3] Patient education and a good doctor–patient relationship are an important part of care.[3][15] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis being the principal types.[3] Crohn's disease affects the small intestine and large intestine, as well as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus, whereas ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.[4][5][6]

IBD also occurs in dogs and is thought to arise from a combination of host genetics, intestinal microenvironment, environmental components and the immune system. There is an ongoing discussion, however, that the term "chronic enteropathy" might be better to use than "inflammatory bowel disease" in dogs because it differs from IBD in humans in how the dogs respond to treatment. For example, many dogs respond to only dietary changes compared to humans with IBD, who often need immunosuppressive treatment. Some dogs may also need immunosuppressant or antibiotic treatment when dietary changes are not enough. After having excluded other diseases that can lead to vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain in dogs, intestinal biopsies are often performed to investigate what kind of inflammation is occurring (lymphoplasmacytic, eosinophilic, or granulomatous). In dogs, low levels of cobalamin in the blood have been shown to be a risk factor for negative outcome.[7][8][9]
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