Class-46, Biology || Disease Part-01 Exam Capsule class|| Ashish Sir || Shivalaya Classes 9664496502



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BIOLOGY
Definition, branches, study area and importance in agriculture.
Section-I Botany (25 questions)
Unit– A
Taxonomy and classification of plants: Genus, species, binomial nomenclature, brief history of
classification. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups- Algae, Bryophyta,
Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae, Angiosperms- Classification upto class, characteristic
features and examples.
Morphology and anatomy of angiosperm plant- Morphology and modifications, internal morphology
of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. External
morphology of angiosperm Plant- Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed and modification.
Anatomy of flowering plants-Anatomy and functions of different tissues. Plant tissue- Definition,
character & classification, meristematic tissue-Type and character. Tissue system- Epidermal, ground and
vascular tissue system, internal structure of root, stem and leaf, secondary growth of root & stem.
Permanent and special tissue.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants- Flower structure, development of male and female
gametophytes, pollination - Types, agencies and examples, outbreeding devices, pollen-pistil interaction,
double fertilization, post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, development of
seed and formation of fruit, special modes-Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony, significance of seed
dispersal and fruit formation.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants- Flower structure, development of male and female
gametophytes, pollination - Types, agencies and examples, outbreeding devices, pollen-pistil interaction,
double fertilization, post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, development of
seed and formation of fruit, special modes-Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony, significance of seed
dispersal and fruit formation.
The Cell: The unit of life- Definition, cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. Electron Microscopic
structure of cell. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Plant and animal cells. Cell organelles and their
functions-Nucleus (including DNA and RNA structure), mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic
reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, microbodies, microfilaments, ribosomes, centriole, cell wall, cilia
and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions-starch grains, mineral crystals. Cell division- Amitosis, mitosis and
meiosis. Comparison of mitosis and meiosis. Significance of meiosis, cell cycle.
Genetics- Mendel’s experiments with pea and the reasons for his success. Mendel’s laws of inheritance,
mono and dihybrid crosses. Chromosome structure and morphology, chromosomes and genes,
chromosome hypothesis. Linkages and crossing over. Mutations. Sex determination, genetic code,
transcription and translation. Chromosomal disorder.
Plant Physiology: (i) Transport in Plants-Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport,
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, plant water relation, semi permeable membranes,
osmosis, diffusion, diffusion pressure deficit (DPD), water potential, plasmolysis. Transpiration-Types,
factors affecting rate of transpiration. Guttation. Absorption of water, active and passive absorption of
water and minerals. (ii) Ascent of sap- Path of ascent of sap, theories explaining ascent of sap. (iii)
Mineral nutrition-Role of minerals in plant growth, macro and micro nutrient, trace elements and their
importance. (iv) Enzymes- Introduction, enzymes as bio-catalysts, nature, classification and mode of
enzyme action. (v) Respiration- Definition, comparison of respiration and fire. Types of respiration-
25
Aerobic, anaerobic and fermentation processes. Respiratory substrate, respiratory quotient, respiration
sites. Mechanism of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis, Kreb cycle and alcoholic fermentation,
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Energy yield (kilo calories). Factors affecting
respiration. (vi) Photosynthesis- Definition, role of water, chlorophyll and carbon-di-oxide, light and
dark reactions, photophosphorylation, Hill reaction, red drop, two pigment system, Calvin cycle,
photorespiration, chemosynthesis (brief account). Factors affecting photosynthesis. (vii) GrowthDefinition, phases of growth, plant hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin and ethylene) and growth
regulation, action on various physiological pr
Category
Health
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