Basal Cell Carcinoma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.



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Chapters

0:00 Introduction
0:53 causes of Basal Cell Carcinoma
2:10 Symptoms of Basal Cell Carcinoma
2:33 Diagnosis for Basal Cell Carcinoma
2:51 Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinoma


Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.[2] It often appears as a painless raised area of skin, which may be shiny with small blood vessels running over it.[1] It may also present as a raised area with ulceration.[1] Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage the tissue around it, but it is unlikely to spread to distant areas or result in death.[7]

Risk factors include exposure to ultraviolet light, having lighter skin, radiation therapy, long-term exposure to arsenic and poor immune-system function.[2] Exposure to UV light during childhood is particularly harmful.[5] Tanning beds have become another common source of ultraviolet radiation.[8] Diagnosis often depends on skin examination, confirmed by tissue biopsy.[2][3]

It remains unclear whether sunscreen affects the risk of basal-cell cancer.[9] Treatment is typically by surgical removal.[2] This can be by simple excision if the cancer is small; otherwise, Mohs surgery is generally recommended.[2] Other options include electrodesiccation and curettage, cryosurgery, topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser surgery or the use of imiquimod, a topical immune-activating medication.[10] In the rare cases in which distant spread has occurred, chemotherapy or targeted therapy may be used.[10]

Basal-cell cancer accounts for at least 32% of all cancers globally.[7][11] Of skin cancers other than melanoma, about 80% are basal-cell cancers.[2] In the United States, about 35% of white males and 25% of white females are affected by BCC at some point in their lives.[2]
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